Fate and effects of oil and dispersed oil
on mangrove ecosystems in Australia

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This environmental research project was based at the CRC Reef Research Centre at James Cook University and at the Australian Institute of Marine Science (AIMS) in Townsville. We are grateful for the encouragement, support and assistance provided by these institutions. The project was chiefly funded byAPPEAandERDC. Additional funding was provided byAIMSand theGreat Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. We are grateful of this support.
Australia-wide Surveys. We thank the people and institutions who have assisted with the study of spill sites around Australia.
We list those who assisted with field studies at each spill site:
  • Torres Strait
-- Tim Skews and Roland Pitcher of CSIRO Cleveland, Fred Mills of QFMA Thursday Island, and Kirstin Duke;
  • Cape Flattery
  • -- Alex Tempedy of Cape Flattery Silica Mine;
  • Yorkeys Knob
  • -- John Peters of Queensland Department of Environment;
  • Botany Bay
  • andParramatta River-- Bill Allaway of University of Sydney;
  • Spencer Gulf
  • --Alan Butler of CSIRO Mannion, Peter Pfennig of SA Dept of Environment and Land Management, Dave Wiltshire consultant to SANTOS, Karen Edyvane of SARDI, Kay Morris of University of Adelaide, Steve Tyerman of Flinders University, Red Connolly of Griffith University, and John Wardrop; and,
  • Cape Lambert
  • andPort Samson-- Dave Fletcher and Paul Colly of Robe River Iron, Steve Vellacott of WA Dept of Environmental Protection; and
  • Withnell Bay
  • -- Greg Oliver of Woodside Petroleum.

    We are very grateful to these people and for their generous assistance on this project.

    Planthouse Trials. We are grateful for the generous assistance of those who helped also with the planthouse project, from collection of propagules, seedlings and mud from the field, to potting seedlings, to construction of tidal tanks, to day-to-day maintenance of tidal systems, to preparing and applying oil treatments, to scoring and measurement of seedlings.

    For this help, we especially thank: Lee Benson, Paul Daniels, Paul Dixon, Rean Monfils, Glen Morgan and Michelle Ramsay.

    Gladstone Held Experiment. We also greatly appreciate the generous assistance provided by people, businesses, and government officials, to all aspects of the challenging field experiment; from initial field site surveys, to permission to use the site, to establishment of enclosures in the mangroves, to donations of oil, equipment and facilities, to the conduct of monthly collections of scientific data and samples, to preparing and applying oil treatments, to cleaning up the site, to the laboratory evaluation of hydrocarbons, and more.

    We particularly thank: Noel Bowley, Laura Carolan, Sue Codi, Paul Daniels, Mikel Duke, Trevor Gilbert, Joanna Knight, Bill Layer, Graham McKim-Hill, Kirsty McNamara, Rean Monfils, Catherine Pratt, Robert Prior, Michael Small, Jamie Storrie, Richard Swannell, Mike Walker, and Andrew White. The Gladstone Port Authority offered the use of the field site within their reclamation area at Fishermans Landing. Queensland Cement Limited, the local tenant bordering the area provided their permission also, as well as allowing free access to the site. The Ampol Refinery at Kurnell in Botany Bay donated the Gippsland Light crude oil used in the treatments. Esso Australia provided the Corexit-9527 dispersant. BP Australia, Gladstone Terminal, provided the land site used for preparation and weathering of oil treatments. Enretech supplied the absorbant booms and bags of oil absorbant product.

    Data on rainfall and temperature for Gladstone were supplied by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. This research project was undertaken under Fisheries Resources Permit No. 965ODB0979 granted by the Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Southern Fisheries Centre. Works were monitored and assisted by officers of the Queensland Department of Environment Regional Office, Queensland Department of Transport, the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority and the Australian Maritime Safety Authority.

    The project outcomes were greatly enhanced with the completion of two honours year, postgraduate projects by Roland Rupp and Catherine Pratt. Dan Ryan and Laurence McCook at AIMS provided valuable help in statistics for chemistry data. Laura Carolyn of AIMS assisted with sediment sample preparation, UVF and TOC analyses. Paul Boehm and John Volkman provided valuable suggestions for revision of the chemistry chapter which is to be published inOrganic Geochemistry.
    Industry, Institutional and Government Policy. We thank Jamie Storrie (GBRMPA), Treyor Gilbert (AMSA), Don Blackmore (AMOSC), and Chris Priestly (QDOT) for assistance and advice in compiling the brief review of existing policy from which we developed our recommendations and guidelines.

    - Contents page

    April 7, 2010