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CReefs - The Australian Node

Time to say farewell from Ningaloo
By Angus Livingston

Wednesday 3 June 2009

CLICK go the lights, boys – CReefs is moving out of Ningaloo Station.

The shearing shed that has housed to us for several weeks has been cleared out and samples packed away. Now it can return to sitting vacant for months until it's time for a flock to be relieved of its woolly weight.

This expedition has given a large group of scientists an unprecedented opportunity to examine this remote part of Ningaloo Reef.

For some it was an extremely fruitful trip, while others found only limited examples of what they were looking for.

Regardless of what was collected, the CReefs team now has a better idea of what is and isn't here at Ningaloo, and that information can assist in further developing management for this area.

It has also added to the global knowledge about coral reefs and the organisms that live on them.

The Ningaloo 2009 team Image: Gary Cranitch

The Ningaloo 2009 team. Image: Gary Cranitch

This part of the reef has hardly been sampled, and had not been sampled at all for some species groups.

Thanks to this trip, gaps in the knowledge of the marine organisms of this section of the Western Australian coastline has begun to be filled, but much work remains to be done.

This work will continue until the next expedition, but for now – farewell. See you at Heron Island in November.


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Sampling will give key to the spread of species around reefs
By Angus Livingston

Tuesday 2 June 2009

WHEN Dr Laetitia Plaisance leaves Ningaloo and goes home to Washington, her work will have only just begun.

Laetitia is employed by the University of California but is working at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington.

Her project is to develop a method of estimating the biodiversity of coral reefs that can be repeated at reefs around the world.

That means she collects dead coral heads of a specific size from a specific depth and then takes samples of everything found in them.

"I do the collecting and sub-sampling here," she said. "Then I do the sequencing and all the statistical analyses [in Washington]."

That DNA sequencing involves samples of every organism – small and large – found in each coral head.

Once the results are known and each species is identified, Laetitia can do some statistical work on the numbers to better understand how species are spread among reefs.

One of the key aspects to this approach is that reef health can be regularly monitored.

"What we wanted most was a method to compare reefs," Laetitia said.

"We can repeat that method from year to year and see if the diversity is changing or not."

Due to rough weather last year, the CReefs team was restricted in taking samples from as many areas as they would have liked.

This year the weather has been better and the collections have included several different spots.

Laetitia said the diversity was surprisingly good at this location, but she will be able to tell more after she returns home.


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Casting a wide net for unknown isopods
By Angus Livingston

Tuesday 2 June 2009

WHEN Dr Niel L Bruce was preparing for what he might find on the trip to Ningaloo, there was one group of isopod species he left out of his homework.

That's because the Paramunnidae had never been found on a coral reef. Until now.

"I've found six species here so far," Niel said.

Senior Curator at the Museum of Tropical Queensland, Queensland Museum, Niel is recording isopod species here at Ningaloo.

One species of Paramunnidae has been found on Magnetic Island before, but Niel said this was the first time it had been found on a coral reef (he classed the Magnetic Island find as an inshore species).

Due to the localised nature of isopods – they mostly crawl or walk – every region has its own species, although there are a few that can spread from the Pacific as far as East Africa.

Niel said there had been little taxonomic work done on some major isopod groups from coral reefs in Australia; even on species that were common in most other parts of the world.

Niel L Bruce

Niel L Bruce
Image: Gary Cranitch

When he went on the first CReefs trip to Lizard Island, as few as 60 isopod species had been recorded from the surrounding reef.

After his two trips to the island, the list now stands above 140 species.

Niel said he was finding a lot of new species here at Ningaloo – as he had expected.

He said previous taxonomic trips had focused on one or two groups of isopods and had to ignore the rest.

"Here we're going out to target the whole range," he said.

Niel is also focusing particularly on a group known as the Asellota (there is no "popular" name).

This group contains about 35 per cent of the world's isopod species, but in Australia only about four species are known from coral reefs.

He has already sampled about 60 species in the group, most not described.

Niel is working with Dr Lauren Hughes, a postdoctoral researcher from the Australian Museum in Sydney.

She is here at Ningaloo to study amphipods – specifically, the benthic amphipod families from 0-30m depth.

Lauren said the diversity of species here was "very different" to the east coast, although there were some constants.

"I am getting overlap with some species from Lizard Island and Darwin," she said.

Once her work here is done she will use the information to do a large biogeographical analysis of amphipods in Australia.


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Rich pickings for fish parasite specialist at Ningaloo
By Angus Livingston


Monday 1 June 2009

UNLIKE most of the other scientists here, Tom Cribb has already collected specimens at Ningaloo.

An associate professor in fish parasites at the University of Queensland, Tom has been studying in his field since 1981 and has collected twice at Ningaloo in the past decade.

He took the opportunity to join the CReefs trip here to get involved in a group that was looking at biodiversity.

"Essentially all the field work I've done previously has been entirely focused on the parasites," he said. "It's interesting to see and learn what other folk are doing."

Fish parasites do not necessarily spend their entire life cycles in the one fish, and can actually go through several organisms in their time.

Tom said he was pleased to be able to talk to CReefs expeditioners Clay Bryce and Corey Whisson about molluscs, as the fish parasites he finds have often passed through an invertebrate at some stage in their life.

In a bid to better understand the spread of parasites, Tom has focused on sampling fish also found on the Great Barrier Reef.

Tom Cribb

Tom Cribb
Image: Gary Cranitch

He said there is a significant overlap between the two coasts, with a large number of fish having the same parasites in both locations.

However he said there were also new species here that he had not found on the Great Barrier Reef.

Tom specialises in worms, including trematodes, nematodes and tapeworms.

Helping him out is Holly Heiniger, a PhD student from the University of Queensland and Queensland Museum.

She is here to collect myxosporeans, which are microscopic parasites that live mainly in the gall bladder and muscle.

(While this interview was taking place, Tom peered through his microscope and announced he had just discovered a new species. Such are the joys of CReefs expeditions).


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The man behind the magnificent CReefs imagery
By Angus Livingston


Monday 1 June 2009

IF you've seen the spectacular natural images on this site, you've seen a shot from Gary Cranitch.

The Queensland Museum photographer has been on all five CReef trips and taken several thousands of photos across the three locations.

"The job, more or less, is to photograph everything that happens," Gary said.

That includes action shots, underwater photography and still images of specimens in the lab for taxonomic purposes.

But with so many samples collected on the expeditions, Gary can't capture everything.

That means he focuses his attention on those specimens that are unusual or spectacular – quite often the tiny creatures found in coral that don't usually get noticed.

"They can only really be found by pulling structures apart. That's what makes them so visually interesting," he said.

Gary tries to bring out the colours and patterns usually hidden in the blue of the ocean and mud of the bottom.

Gary Cranitch at Ningaloo

Gary Cranitch at Ningaloo
Image: Francois Michonneau

His work with CReefs helped him win the Australian Institute of Professional Photographers' Science, Nature and Environment Photographer of the Year 2008.

"It was all CReefs work. It's just helped me enormously," he said.

The Queensland Museum shifted from shooting on film to digital cameras two years ago, and Gary said it had taken his work to a new level.

"Digital has freed me up in a creative sense. You push yourself more," he said.

For the record, he uses Nikon D300 cameras, a variety of lenses, and an Ikelite underwater housing.

As well as shooting for CReefs, Gary also takes the opportunity to get shots of birds for the Queensland Museum as part the partnership between the museum and AIMS.

Having been to the three CReefs locations, Gary said all three had natural beauty he enjoyed photographing.

"This is a truly remote location," he said.

"And I'm really enjoying the shearing shed experience."


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Ningaloo crabs off to Florida for analysis and barcoding
 By Angus Livingston

Monday 1 June 2009

SOME of the most interesting specimens collected here at Ningaloo have been safely tucked away in the dive bag of Rob Lasley.

Rob, from the Florida Museum of Natural History, is here at Ningaloo working on crustaceans – specifically crabs.

There have been the Liomera and Neoliomera: small but brightly coloured red, orange and purple crabs. Or the calappidae, the crab that looks like a stone and has "can opener" claws that tuck underneath it. Or even the large ghost crabs that run around on the beach metres from the makeshift lab in the shearing shed.

Rob has found a large and diverse supply of crabs in the two weeks he's been at Ningaloo.

"We went out to an exposed shelf on the reef and they were all over. That was a good spot," he said.

"And I found a bunch under some rocks."

Most exciting for him, he found three species of chlorodiella, the genus he's focusing on.

Rob Lasley on the beach

Rob Lasley on the beach
Image: Gary Cranitch

Rob will start his PhD in Singapore in July, but before that he has to send his samples to Florida.

He is working with Francois Michonneau on a project to map the biodiversity of the Indo-Pacific.

Between them they've collected 971 samples so far, with more on the way.

Eventually the marine organisms they collect here will have their DNA analysed and barcoded.


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Sea cucumbers missing in action
 By Angus Livingston

 Friday 29 May  2009:

IF LIZARD Island was paradise for sea cucumbers, Ningaloo Reef falls some way short of that.

It has been somewhat frustrating for Francois Michonneau, who is doing his PhD in the marine organisms through the University of Florida.

"Sea cucumber numbers are really low here," he said.

Francois Michonneu.
Image: Gary Cranitch.
"I think it's probably from the environmental conditions. It's more exposed to wave action."

Despite that, Francois has been collecting as many samples as possible of all types of echinoderms as he can.

His collections are part of a large project being run out of the University of Florida that aims to establish a picture of biodiversity across the Indian and Pacific Oceans.

Francois collected on Lizard Island as part of that project, as well as from locations in Madagascar, off Hawaii and in the French Polynesian Islands.

He said that a DNA barcode would be generated from each sample collected and analysed for similarities with species collected from other sites.

In this way, scientists can decide if separate species should actually be classed as the same thing, or if populations that were previously thought to be a single species are actually two or more species.

"We have a really broad coverage of the Indo-Pacific," Francois said.

Working with Rob Lasley, from the Florida Museum of Natural History, Francois has collected 971 marine samples so far.

However the lack of a number of species he expected to find at Ningaloo has surprised him.

"A lot of really common species of the Indo-Pacific I haven't found yet – or they're not here," he said.

Even though he has not been collecting as much as he would like, finding a lack of species is just as important to the project as finding an incredibly diverse range.

It means the scientists using the results of the project can better understand where marine organisms live – and where they don't.

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Mr Fixit Shawn makes CReefs Australia expeditions happen

 By Angus Livingston

 Wednesday 27 May  2009:

WHEN scientists turn up to Ningaloo reef, plug their laptops in, fill their dive tanks and start collecting samples, they have Shawn Smith to thank.

Shawn is the AIMS project manager for the CReefs trips and it's his job to do all the organising and setting up before everyone gets here.

First of all he organises the location.

"Heron Island and Lizard Island are pretty easy because they've got research stations. Here [at Ningaloo] it's a bit more difficult," he said.

Then he books dates and makes sure they don't clash with school holidays – or the shearing season, in the case of Ningaloo.

The next step? 

Shawn Smith
Shawn Smith.
Image: Gary Cranitch.
"Put the word out and see who's keen. Then I work out how the people are going to work together," Shawn said.

Some scientists have dive qualifications or employer regulations that restrict who they can dive with.

"The dive stuff is half the job," Shawn said.

Flights and accommodation are booked, and contracts are sent out to those employed for the trip, such as the cook and journalist.

This site has presented extra challenges due to its remote location, so Shawn had to schedule flights to limit the amount of long drives to the airport and back.

Equipment also needed to be organised, and some of the bookings had to be made up to 12 months in advance.

Boats, compressors, generators and people to drive the boats all had to be procured, as well as the necessary communications equipment.

Shawn arrived a week before everyone else got here to set up, and while the expedition is running he oversees the daily dive schedule and paying of invoices, among many other things.

Once everything is wrapped up, Shawn has to pack up and send off the cases of marine samples collected during the trip.

"A lot of  [the equipment here] will be stored in Exmouth until next year," he said.

Then it's back to Townsville to begin planning for the next expedition

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Soft corals set for intensive scrutiny

 By Angus Livingston

Wednesday 27 May  2009:

Soft corals set for intensive scrutiny

 By Angus Livingston

Wednesday 27 May  2009:

SOFT corals have been comparatively under-studied in Australia, but hopefully that is about to change.

Dr Monika Schlacher-Hoenlinger, a research fellow at the Queensland Museum (QM), will study soft corals for three years as part of an Australian Biological Resources Study grant awarded to the QM's Professor John Hooper. It will allow her to collect and study soft corals from the east and west coasts of Australia.

On previous CReefs trips, Monika and her colleagues from QM and AIMS have collected specimens and identified them to genus, but that was as far as they could take it.

"We collected the soft corals but then we had no funding [to follow it up]," she said.

"But I do now – three years full time and just on soft coral. I'll also be able to get more training."


Soft coral.

Soft corals.
Image: Gary Cranitch.

So far at Ningaloo, Monika and QM colleague Dr Merrick Ekins have found several points of difference to their sampling on Heron Island and Lizard Island.

"I think the main difference is that the biodiversity seems to be much lower," she said.

"It's a fringing reef here, and it's much more high energy."

Monika said there were so many species to look at that getting complete information on all of them would be impossible.

"We will pick certain groups of soft corals and try to work them up in more detail," she said.

"In the long term, it's definitely the goal to compare both coasts."

So far Monika and Merrick have collected about 100 specimens to go with the specimens they've collected from the Great Barrier Reef.

Monika said she was keeping the two collections separate so she could identify them and then see if there were any species that were present on both sides of the continent.

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Less bryozoan diversity but plenty to keep Phil interested at Ningaloo
By Angus Livingston

OW into his fourth expedition with CReefs, Phil Bock has got a good understanding of the biodiversity of bryozoans at Lizard Island, Heron Island and here at Ningaloo.

For the uninitiated, bryozoans are tiny invertebrate organisms, also known as lace corals or moss animals, that settle on various parts of the reef and form small colonies.

They usually settle on dead coral or the underside of rocks or, in one case that Phil found washed up on the beach here, a piece of plastic.

Phil is retired but is still an honorary associate at Museum Victoria.

He said the environment at Ningaloo was not as diverse as the areas around Heron Island and Lizard Island, as those islands had larger areas to explore. Instead, Ningaloo had a narrow strip of reef from which to sample.

"Definitely the places we go to on the Great Barrier Reef have much greater diversity than here," he said.

Despite that, Phil has found about 100 species so far and is still turning up more every day.

"You pick up a slab of coral and there are 20 different species all over it," he said.

Bryozoans are fed on by some animals, but generally compete for space alongside coral and sponges.

A number of bryozoans were collected here last year when Phil couldn't attend and he said his collection this year was already showing differences to last year's.

"The common ones from last year aren't showing up anywhere nearly as often this year," he said.

Phil Bock

Phil Bock.
Image: Gary Cranitch.

Despite that, Phil has found about 100 species so far and is still turning up more every day.

"You pick up a slab of coral and there are 20 different species all over it," he said.

Bryozoans are fed on by some animals, but generally compete for space alongside coral and sponges.

A number of bryozoans were collected here last year when Phil couldn't attend and he said his collection this year was already showing differences to last year's.

"The common ones from last year aren't showing up anywhere nearly as often this year," he said.

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Mollusc goes with the flow from the Indian Ocean

 By Angus Livingston

 Tuesday 26 May  2009:

ONE of the molluscs now residing in a specimen jar at Ningaloo reef has a different story to the others.

Molluscs are a large and diverse group of soft-bodied, invertebrate shellfish, with members ranging from the oyster to the octopus.

Most of the molluscs found on Australia's west coast are of Pacific Ocean origin, having travelled on the currents down through Indonesia.

However this particular specimen – Drupa lobatum – is of Indian Ocean origin.

While most mollusc larvae move down the Western Australian coast on a warm current from the north, this particular specimen has dropped off one of the Indian Ocean currents that glance into the continental shelf and joined the southern flow.
Clay Bryce collecting in murky waters.

Clay Bryce collecting in murky waters.
Image: Gary Cranitch.
It's just one of a number of species Clay Bryce, from the WA Museum, has found that aren't usually to be seen on this side of the country.

Clay is senior project manager of the mollusc section at the WA Museum and is back at Ningaloo after also making the trip last year.

So far he and Corey Whisson have found a large number of mollusc specimens in the few days they've been on site.

Another unusual visitor to these shores is the Chromodoris lochi, which Clay found in 30m of water.

Named after Ian Loch from the Australian Museum, it had not been found off this coast before.

The Platydoris formosa, in contrast, has only been found once off Western Australia before.

Those are just three of the many, many mollusc samples Clay and Corey have found.

"There's just so much to identify and we're only looking at molluscs that are greater than half a centimetre," he said.

"What I'd like to have a look at is some of the more cryptic forms, like the ones that live on soft coral."

As well as finding new or previously unseen species, Clay is also building a picture of the biodiversity of this part of Ningaloo reef.

He has been checking different habitats on the reef to learn where molluscs are living.

Eventually he will be able to use the information from these expeditions to compare this section of the reef to other marine areas, and gain a better insight into which organisms are living here and how they travel.

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Plugging the gaps in polychaete knowledge
 By Angus Livingston

 Monday 25 May  2009:

SOME areas of the Australian coastline have been extensively studied for years, resulting in vast amounts of data available on the marine life within them.

Not so Ningaloo.

Without a permanent research station, of which there are a number along the length of the Great Barrier Reef, expeditions to the area take a considerable amount of time and organisation.

That's why Pat Hutchings, Maria Capa, Robin Wilson and Lynda Avery jumped at the chance to be part of the CReefs trip to Ningaloo.

All four work with polychaetes, which have not been studied in any great detail in this part of Australia.

Pat, a Senior Principal Research Scientist at the Australian Museum in Sydney, said it was easier to go to places like Heron Island on the Great Barrier Reef, which already had labs and equipment ready.

Unidentified Polychaete of the Serpulidae family.

Unidentified Polychaete of the Serpulidae family.
Image: Gary Cranitch.


"You can't just arrive at a place like Ningaloo and expect to find compressors and makeshift labs," she said. "It's a tremendous opportunity to come out here."

This trip will help fill the holes in knowledge about the fauna of this area, even though there are far too many species to be identified and catalogued by the four scientists.

Pat is focused on Terebellidae, and has been collecting up and down the Western Australian coast for the past couple of decades, from the Kimberleys, to Rottnest Island.

"There was a big gap in the middle [at Ningaloo]," she said.

Robin Wilson, the Senior Curator of Marine Invertebrates at Museum Victoria, is also keen to fill in the gaps in this area.

"I'm trying to assemble an Australia-wide dataset, which can inform management decisions," he said.

"Australia is surprisingly poorly supplied with such datasets at the moment."

The four scientists have collected hundreds of samples, but they will only focus on their own special families. The rest of the samples will be sorted to family and made available to researchers from around the world who want to study them.

Pat and Maria have recently been awarded an ABRS/CReefs grant to study polychaetes, which will allow them to continue their work for the next three years.

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Shearing shed with a view pressed into service as unique marine science lab
 By Angus Livingston

 Monday 25 May  2009:

WORKING in a shearing shed half a century old certainly has its charms.

The smell of ancient sheep dung in the morning is one of them. A full basket of sheep dags is another.

The shed has seen thousands of sheep come to be relieved of their fleeces – but now it is being used to reveal secrets of marine life.

Hi-tech DNA sampling equipment sits a metre from an old wool press. Samples of coral rubble sit in stalls designed for grading fleeces.

And just 40m out the main door is the beach.

The scientists here at Ningaloo bring their samples up the beach and into the makeshift lab for examination.

Forty years ago, bales of wool travelled in the opposite direction down a tramway into the sea, where they boarded a flat-bottomed lighter and were transported out past the reef to waiting cargo ships.

Founded in the 1890s, Ningaloo Station is one of the iconic shearing stations along this section of the Western Australian coast.

The shearing shed at Ningaloo Station.

The shearing shed at Ningaloo Station.
Image: Gary Cranitch.


Marine scientists at work inside the shearing shed.

Marine scientists at work inside the shearing shed.
Image: Gary Cranitch.

In 1923, two whalers came down the coast and ran aground on nearby Fraser Island, which housed a lighthouse at the time.

One of them escaped, while the other was marooned – until a cyclone came through and wiped away the entire island.

Now divers can swim through the wreck of the whaler and the downed lighthouse, which sits on the bottom of the ocean.

Marine samples from the ocean floor will be brought back to the shed, where they will sit next to chalked up tallies and hand-crank-operated doors.

At dusk, the rusty tin shed filled with 21st century equipment sits juxtaposed among the sand dunes.

Remote, isolated and separated by a strip of sand from the Indian Ocean, this agricultural outpost has become a scientific centre – for a month.

Then it will go back to being the shearing shed with the best view in the country.

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Marine creatures face the long arm of the scientific law as their "fingerprints" go on record
By Angus Livingston

Thursday 21 May  2009:

EVERY human being has fingerprints – a unique set of lines on our fingertips that can be used to put our identity beyond doubt. An inky finger pressed onto paper and our branding is revealed, providing an accurate and reliable method of identification.

That ability to consistently identify a human is something the Ocean Genome Legacy Foundation is trying to transfer to the marine arena.

No, they're not making polychaetes swim through ink or putting crab claws on an ID sheet. Instead, they're looking at their DNA to find a common sequence that is unique to each species.

Just as every human has fingers, so we know where to look to get fingerprints, a large number of marine organisms have a common DNA sequence in a predictable spot.

Abby Fusaro.

Abby Fusaro.
Image: Gary Cranitch.

That sequence – cytochrome oxidase 1 – is the piece that allows scientists like Dr Abby Fusaro to definitively identify a sample as a particular marine organism.

"The idea is that it's unique per species. It's a quick molecular ID," she said.

Once a species has been identified and the CO1 ‘barcode' sequence confirmed, the information is stored in the Barcode of Life Database.

It then becomes available to scientists to search and use in their research.

Abby said the barcode allowed scientists to identify samples of larvae or determine if different-looking individuals were the same species or not.

Eventually the technology will allow for large quantities of genetic material to be collected and sampled en masse, however Abby said there were still some kinks to be worked out.

One of those kinks includes the fact some marine organisms can't be told apart by their CO1 sequence.

Some corals and sponges have shown this tendency, so Abby and the Ocean Genome Legacy Foundation are trying to find other consistent DNA sequences in those organisms' genetic makeup to correctly identify them.

Another issue is the technology used to amplify the CO1 sequences.

At the moment it still cannot identify every piece of DNA in a mass sample; however Abby said it was still useful to better understand the biodiversity of an area.

"We can get some estimate of diversity, but we know we're not getting everything," she said.

While there are still issues to sort out, there is still a lot of collecting and barcoding to be done.

Abby has been working at Ningaloo to collect samples of the organisms so she can identify them back in the lab.

Eventually, scientists will be able to ‘fingerprint' every sample they collect, giving them a much better understanding of the biodiversity of the world's oceans.

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Back to (a slightly different
part of) Ningaloo 

By Angus Livingston

Tuesday 19 May  2009:

TUCKED away in a remote corner of Western Australia, Ningaloo Reef doesn't have the profile of its more popular cousin, the Great Barrier Reef, off the coast of Queensland.

However the location has an important contribution to make to the CReefs Australia project, which is now in its second year of collecting expeditions.

Comparable in latitude to Heron Island, Ningaloo offers the chance to get an understanding of the state of reef diversity on the Western side of the continent.

Ningaloo skyline.

Ningaloo skyline.
Image: Angus Livingston.
Last year the team went to a site a little further north of this year's site, which is based on a sheep station approximately 100km from Exmouth.

Project leader Dr Julian Caley said the location change was made after the scientists who attended last year's expedition were surveyed and indicated that they wanted a chance to sample other areas of the reef.

"Ningaloo reef is very narrow, so to sample it properly we have to move up and down the coast," he said.

The reef has not been sampled to the same extent that Heron Island and Lizard Island have, meaning a lot of scientists have been keen to participate in expeditions at this location.

"There's been a lot of interest in coming on this trip," Julian said.

"Now that we've been going for a year or so, people are better able to adjust their schedules so that they can attend."

This year the group includes a four-strong team investigating worms, a group studying soft corals and scientists looking at sponges and fish parasites.

A new collaboration has also begun with this expedition. The Ocean Genome Legacy Project is represented on a CReefs Australia expedition for the first time. This collaboration will help the researches obtain genetic barcodes for many of the species being collected. Keep watching this blog for some further detail about this new activity.

A number of scientists from previous expeditions have also returned this year, giving the project continuity and opportunities to compare results across years and with different groups of species.

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Angus Livingston, CReefs journalist on Ningaloo Reef

Angus Livingston, CReefs journalist on Heron Island

 Hobart-based Angus Livingston has BA from the University of Tasmania with majors in Journalism and History.

 He has worked as a reporter for the Advocate for three and a half years, covering primarily sport and politics.


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CReefs Australia: A partnership between BHP Billiton, the Great Barrier Reef Foundation,
the Census of Marine Life and the Australian Institute of Marine Science (AIMS).
CReefs Australia is a node of the Census of Coral Reef Ecosystems (CReefs),
a project of the Census of Marine Life.

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